Aluminum Cooking Equipment
Aluminum is used excessively in the modern world, and the uses of the metal are extremely diverse due to its many unusual combinations of properties. No other metallic element can be used in so many ways across such a variety of domains, like in the home, in transport, on land, sea and in air, and in industry and commerce. Aluminum's uses are not always as obvious as they may seem, with sizeable proportions of manufactured aluminum and aluminum oxide going into other separate processes, like the manufacture of glass, rather than towards the common consumer products that we most readily associate Aluminum with.

One of the most common end uses of aluminum is packaging, including drinks cans, foil wrappings, bottle tops and foil containers. Each of these relies on aluminum to provide a way of containing the food cleanly, and to protect it from changes in the local environment outside the packaging. Aluminum is still used in a very big way in the food packaging industry despite recent health worries linking aluminum to Alzheimer's disease. Aluminum's natural resistance to corrosion aids it in its role in packaging (and many other areas), as unlike in iron, aluminum oxide forms a protective and not destructive layer. Aluminum is also completely impermeable, (even when rolled into extremely thin foil), and also doesn't let the aroma or taste out of food packaging, the metal is non-toxic and aromaless itself too, making it perfect for packaging.

Used in Aeroplanes.
Aluminum's unbeatable strength to weight ratio1 gives it many uses in the transport industry. Transport is all about moving things around and to do so a force is always required. As force = mass x acceleration (Newton's Second Law of Motion), less force is needed to move a lighter object to a certain acceleration than is needed to get a heavier object to the same acceleration. As aluminum is so lightweight this means that less energy needs to be used to move a vehicle made with aluminum than one made from a heavier metal, say steel. Although aluminum isn't the strongest of metals its alloys use other elements to pin dislocations in its structure to increase its strength. With trains, boats and cars aluminum is useful for this lightweight property (which gives fuel efficiency) but not essential, in planes however maintaining a relatively low weight is vital (in order to level the ground), and aluminum allows planes to have to this. In modern planes aluminum makes up 80% of their (unladen) weight, and a normal Boeing 747 contains about 75 000 kg of the metal. Its corrosion resistance is an advantage in transport (as well as packaging) as it makes painting planes unnecessary saving some hundreds of kilograms of further weight.

Aluminum in powerlines.
Weight is also important in aluminum's electrical uses, where it's low density2 makes it the first choice for long distance powerlines despite having just 63% of the electrical conductivity of (much denser) copper. In fact 1 kg of aluminum conducts almost twice as much electricity as 1 Kg of copper. Since 1945 aluminum has been used in high voltage electrical transmission, in place of copper as it is the most cost efficient power line material. With copper many heavy, and expensive support structures needed to be used, yet using aluminum fewer lighter and cheaper supports have to be used. This saves huge amount of money, despite a wastage in electricity due to lower conductivity. Aluminum is also more ductile than copper, so it is easier to draw it into wires to produce these power lines, its corrosion resistance completes aluminum's profile as the perfect choice for long-distance electricity distribution. Aluminum has other electrical applications too including TV aerials, satellite dishes, and being the standard base for bulbs.

Buildings made with aluminum are virtually maintenance free due to the strength of aluminum's corrosion resistance. Due to this and its light weight it is used in cladding, windows, skylights, gutters, door frames, and roofing. Insulated aluminum cladding is also very thermally efficient, keeping homes warm in winter, and cool in summer. One layer of insulated aluminum cladding is as effective as four inches of brick or ten of stone. Aluminum can also be painted and used with other material to achieve a particular effect on the appearance of a building. The metal is extremely versatile and it can be curved, tapered, welded, bonded and cut to any shape to be used for a certain job.

Ideal in construction.

Aluminum also has further end uses in products used more readily around the home. Like all the other uses they relate specifically back to the properties of the metal. The material is used to make saucepans, kitchen utensils, golf clubs, tennis bats, indoor and outdoor furniture, fridges, and toasters.

Summary: Aluminum has a huge number of uses. These range from all sorts of packaging, through to aeroplanes, cars and train carriages. Aluminum is also vital in powerlines, the building and construction industry and commonplace household objects. The key features that lend aluminum to these uses are corrosion resistance, low density, ductility, electrical conductivity and strength in alloys.

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1: Aluminum (when solid) has a density of 2700 kg per cubic metre and it has a Youngs Modulus of 70 GPa, Iron although having a Young Modulus of 211 has a density of 7874 kg per cubic metre, so it much heavier (for a given volume). Source: Web Elements.
2: Aluminum weighs about a third as much a copper. Source: World Aluminum Organisation
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